If you are starting to learn how to use Selenium with Python it is a great idea to download a framework so that you can get a jump start on developing test scripts using Python with Selenium. You have probably already installed Python, and most people use pip to make it super easy. I have outlined the steps below that are needed to get it up and running. This is the first time I have installed pip so you will be able to see the process from beginning to end.
If you have not configured Selenium with Eclipse click here.
If you want to learn more about the benefits of the Robot framework click here.
Install Python Robot Framework for Selenium using PIP
Step 1: Find Install location
Go to the location where you have installed Python.
Step 2: Copy the path of the folder location.
Step 3: Type cmd to open the command line
Step 4: Type cd and paste the path of the directory.
Step 5: Type pip install robotframework and press Enter
That is it. The Python Robot Framework for Selenium has been installed successfully using pip.
If you would like to learn more about Selenium click here.
Learn How to Setup Selenium with Eclipse and Python
Here are the steps needed to Learn How to Setup Selenium with Eclipse and Python
Step 1: Install Python
Go here to install the latest version of Python.
Open the installer. Click on the checkbox to add Python to path and Install Now.
Python is installing.
Install was successful.
Step 2: Install PyDev in Eclipse IDE:
Once you are logged into Eclipse, select Help and Eclipse Marketplace
The Eclipse Marketplace screen will appear. Enter in pydev and click on search icon.
Click on the Install button.
The following window will appear. Make sure both boxes are checked and click on the Confirm button.
On the next window select the Radio button to accept the terms and click on the Finish button.
You will notice at the bottom of Eclipse, the python software is in the process of being installed.
Once that is complete a message window will appear. Click on Restart Now button.
Once Eclipse IDE has been restarted, click on Window and Preferences
The following window will appear. Click on PyDev.
Click on PyDev > Interpreters > Python Interpreter and the following will appear:
click on the Config first in PATH button. That will cause the python icon to be displayed under Python Interpreters.
Next, click on Libraries. You will see a list of the files displayed. Next, click on Browse for python/pypy exe
When finished, click on the Apply and Close button.
Now, we need to create a new project in Python. Click on File > New > Other
The following window will appear. Expand PyDev and select on PyDev Project and click on the Next button.
The following window will appear. Name the project NewPyDevProject and click on Finish
Next, you will need to create a new package. On the project name right-click and select New > PyDev Package
On the next window, call your new package newPackage and click on the Finish button.
You will see the new package is created in Eclipse.
Once the new package is created, you will need to create a new module. Right click on your project, click on New > Other
The following window will appear. Click on PyDev Module and then click the Next button.
Enter in your module name and click on the Next button.
That is it. Now you are ready to start preparing your tests in Selenium.
Selenium 4 Alpha Download Available
If you are looking for Selenium 4 Alpha version, you can find it here. While it is not recommended to use an Alpha version for full implementation, it will let you see what new changes are there and it will help you figure out what changes you will need to make moving forward and understand the benefits,
Selenium 4 Official Release Date
As of now, there hasn’t been an announcement on when Selenium 4 will officially be released. Once we know that, we will provide the updated date.
Selenium 4 Changes
Here are some of the major changes that will happen in Selenium 4
- W3C Selenium WebDriver standardization- The goal is to have Selenium WebDriver completely standardized. There are other tools and products that use WebDriver so this is a must have. Specifically mobile testing tools like Appium and iOS Driver heavily rely on it. With the change coming in Selenium 4, the test will now be able to directly communicate without using API encoding/decoding using the W3C protocol.
- Selenium IDE Support for Chrome-There will be much more advanced capabilities with the new update. There will be a completely new way using a new plug-in to Selenium 4. There will also be a new CLI Runner that will leverage NodeJS and have the following capabilities:
- WebDriver playback
- Parallel execution
- Improved Selenium Grid-While Selenium Grid is very powerful in that it allows tests to run in parallel, it is very difficult to initially setup and configure. In Selenium Grid, the hub acts like a server and it controls which tests are run. The node are the test machines where the Selenium test scripts are run. With Selenium 4, there will be improved changes related to the hub.
- Improved Selenium Grid UI-Selenium 4 will have an improved user experince with a much richer UI.
- Improved Debugging/Logging capability-It is important for the automated engineers to have as much detail as possible when it comes to logging and debugging of issues. Selenium 4 promises to provide that in order to accelerate resolution of script issues.
- Selenium 4 Documentation– The documentation hasn’t been updated since Selenium 2.0. Documentation is critical and it is important that it is updated so that automated test engineers will not have to wonder how to use Selenium 4.
I hope this information has been helpful. I will be thrilled to see the new Selenium 4 version when it is officially released. For now, you can download Selenium 4 Alpha version from the link provided above. Once the official version is released, you will be able to download it from the SeleniumHQ website.
Steps to install Selenium WebDriver
Here are the steps needed to install the various components needed for Selenium WebDriver.
Step 1: Install Java
Download and install the Java Software Development Kit (JDK) here
Select and download the correct JDK version for your operating system
Once this installation has been downloaded and installed, open your command prompt and type java -version to confirm the correct Java version has been installed.
Step 2-Install Eclipse
Download the latest version of Eclipse here.
Once the file has been downloaded, double click on the file to install Eclipse. Select Eclipse IDE for Java Developers.
Click on the Install button.
Accept Terms and Conditions
The installation will begin.
When the install is complete, click on the Launch button.
Step 3-Download Selenium Java Client WebDriver
Download the Selenium Java Client WebDriver here.
The download file will come as a .zip file. You can create a folder on your computer called: C:\Selenium and extract the contents of the download there. This will contain all the needed files that will be used to configure Selenium. Once you extract the files it will look like this:
Step 4-Configure Eclipse with Selenium WebDriver
Go to the location where you extracted the zip file. It will contain an executable called eclipse.exe. You might also see a shortcut on your desktop that looks like:
Double click on the Eclipse shortcut and it will launch Eclipse. You can use the location listed, and click on Launch.
Once the screen is launched, click on Create a New Java Project
The following window will appear. For the project name you can call it myfirstproject. You can use the other defaults listed and click the Finish button.
The following window will appear. Click on the Create button.
The following screen appears:
Right click on myfirstproject and select New and then Package.
The following window will appear. Name the new package mypackage and click on the Finish button.
Right click on myfirstpackage and select New then Class
The following window will appear. Under name enter myfirstjavaclass and click the Finish button.
For the next step, right click on myfirstproject and select Properties
On the properties window, select Java Build Path then Libraries tab then Add External JARS…
The JAR Selection window will appear. Go to the location where you installed the Selenium files on your computer. Mine is installed at: C:\Selenium.
Double click on the libs folder
Select all the files and click the open button.
You will see all the files you selected displayed. Click on Add External JARS.. button again
The JAR Selection window will appear. Select all files there and click on Open.
On the Properties window, click on the Apply and Close button.
You will now see the Referenced Libraries displayed.
The Selenium WebDriver configuration is finished. I hope this information has been helpful. Don’t forget when you create a new project, you will need to import these files again. In order to run your scripts you will need to determine which browsers you plan on using.
You can click here to learn how to setup the different browsers.
What is Selenium?
- Open sourced software testing code allows anyone to use this tool with no software licensing costs
- Is used to test web based applications
- It has a very strong community because many software testers use it
- It can be used with popular software programming languages such as Java and Python
- Runs on many different browsers across different operating systems
- Can easily be integrated and leveraged with other tools
- Only used for web based applications, so it will not support automation of mainframe or AS400 applications
- Is supported by the community, so there is no central company that owns the code or provides updates
- Selenium WebDriver: is a collection of language bindings to drive actions within the web browser. If you need to create a series of web based test automation scripts you will need to use Web Driver. If you want to learn how to install Java and Selenium WebDriver click here.
- Selenium Grid: Is a tool that enables parallel test execution across multiple machines and browsers at the same time. This saves a lot of time and helps you get through large regression suites.
Click here for additional information on Selenium.
There are also some Big Changes in Selenium 4.
For the official website you can visit Selenium HQ.
It is extremely important to develop a strategic plan when creating test automation scripts. With the push towards Agile and DevOps the mindset has become to automate as much testing as possible. While that idea makes sense, it is important to determine how much test automation is needed. Part of the problem is that those who are managing Agile or DevOps teams have a really different mindset, and they really don’t understand basic testing principles. Instead of taking the time to understand, they force their understanding and push test engineering in the wrong direction.
Test Automation Planning
Test automation is certainly critical for Agile and DevOps. There are things that can and should be automated but before that is done, a few questions must be asked:
- How many times are these test automation scripts going to be executed?
- Is the code stable or is it going to change a lot over the next several sprints?
- Has the test been executed manually and has it passed successfully?
- How much time will it take to maintain the test scripts?
- Do you have the right resources to build and update the test scripts?
- What type of tools are you going to use?
- What type of framework are you going to build?
- How much does the test automation software cost?
These questions will help lay the foundation of your test automation planning. The next step will be to identify the number of test cases that need to be automated.
Testing That Should Not Be Automated
Here is a list of test cases that should not be automated:
- Test cases that will only be executed a few times
- Test cases that require human touch, for example review of a customer bill
- Test cases that require a third party billing system such as a payment gateway that doesn’t have a test environment
- Test cases were the code is unstable and is constantly changing
Test Case Quality
Test automation scripts help with providing test coverage across applications. This allows faster deployments because it doesn’t require manual testing. However, if you create hundreds of test cases and those never identify any defects, is it really worth maintaining and running those over and over again? Probably not. The test cases that are automated should be able to capture defects. Therefore, it is important that you have some really sharp manual testers who can think through the testing scenarios and identify problem areas that need attention. Without that system knowledge, you will not capture defects and it will not be a good use of your resources.
Return on Investment
It is really important to understand how much cost is involved in creating automated tests. If you create thousands of them, how much is it going to take to make changes on those when the GUI or back end systems change? If it is your department or team, as a manager or employee, you really need to be able to answer this challenging question. At every organization, I make sure that I calculate the ROI. There are a few ways to do this. First, you roughly need to know what is the cost of a member of your team or the average rate per contractor or employee. Most organizations will have that already. Second, you will need to determine how many scripts are going to be automated and how many times are they going to be executed. Third, you need to know how much time does it take to execute those test cases manually. Fourth, once the test cases are automated, you need to know how much time does each one take to execute. These items will at least give you a basic ROI. Most ROI numbers are somewhere between 6-12 months. Anything over a year, probably isn’t worth it. There are other variations that are more complex, but this will at least get you started. Knowing this information is certainly powerful, and it will help justify the expense for having automation engineers.
I cannot stress the importance of doing these basic steps. With Agile and DevOps, everything tends to be rushed. Perform this basic analysis first and spend a little time up front to yield large returns in the long run.